A. The Power of Design

Product packaging
Product packaging design for Sampoerna cigarettes

Design to me means problem solving in a way which shapes the world. Whether we are communicating an idea, belief or opinion, the tools and skills we have give us the ability to promote action in individuals. Having this skillset is beneficial not only to our professional careers, but our personal lives as well. However being able to influence a particular audience through design brings in to question certain morals, ethics and values which we employ on a day-to-day basis. A Study conducted by Allen & Davis, (1993) shows how individual values positively correlate to professional ethics. This study highlights how the way in which you conduct yourself personally, carries through to your professional careers. Understanding your personal morals of what is good and bad, and employing them in your professional lives is a way designers can create positive change through design activism. 

We are stronger
Two cigarette companies advertising outside a shop front

Throughout my experience in Surabaya, I was bombarded with advertising which supported the smoking culture of Indonesia. These ads were seen across product packages, billboards and posters. Seeing this made me realise that specific design choices were made to entice the responder to partake in behaviours which were detrimental to their health. After realising the power of design in these instances, I questioned my own moral and ethical standards in a professional light. Our role as designers, is to create a message for an audience. However it’s naive of us to believe that it’s up to personal choice whether the individuals viewing our message will partake in the behaviours I’m representing (Wolowicz, 2011). Designers, must be aware that through good design comes subliminal messages which work on the subconscious mind to create a pattern of behaviour over time (Wolowicz, 2011). If a designer isn’t aware of the long-term effects of their creations, then they will purely be working to make things look good, versus making things good (Hardt, 2009).

No smoking
A no smoking sign hidden within the trees at a local community entrance

Through design activism, we can create a human-centred approach to navigating the ethical dilemma’s that arise in our careers (Brown, 2009). From my primary research in Surabaya, the tobacco advertisements depict a lifestyle of adventure and professionalism, however the environmental, economical and social impacts were far from this ‘truth’. With the World Health Organisation (2017) showing that the socio-economic context of smokers in Indonesia are from a middle-low income household, we can see that these professional and extravagant lives that are depicted in the advertisements are fabrications designed to encourage behaviours that aren’t beneficial to the health and environment of humans. Design is a powerful tool and one which we mustn’t take lightly. As designers we must understand that what we do solidifies and naturalises opinions, stories, behaviours and traditions (Rock, 2016). Maintaining personal values in a professional environment will help us forge a career with positive influence and change on the general population.

SIDE NOTE: Here’s a great example of design which I found along my travels. A paint mural advertising MIXONE Outdoor Paint, located just outside the Kampung Warna Warni Jodipan (The Coloured Village in Malang).


MixOne advertising outside Kampung Warna Warni Jadipan



Allen, J. and Davis, D. (1993). Assessing some determinant effects of ethical consulting behavior: The case of personal and professional values. Journal of Business Ethics, [online] 12(6), pp.449-458. Available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01666559 [Accessed 18 Dec. 2018].

Brown, T. (2009). Change by Design. 1st ed. [ebook] Canada: HarperBusiness. Available at: http://bsili.3csn.org/files/2013/06/change-by-design-brown-e.pdf [Accessed 18 Dec. 2018].

Hardt, M. (2009). Design & Ethics: Good, bad, innocent or ignorant?. [online] International Council of Design. Available at: http://www.ico-d.org/connect/features/post/353.php [Accessed 18 Dec. 2018].

Rock, M. (2016). The Accidental Power of Design. [online] NY Times. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/15/t-magazine/design/bathroom-debate-accidental-power-of-design.html?mcubz=0 [Accessed 18 Dec. 2018].

Wolowicz, M. (2011). Ethical Issues in the Graphic Design Business. [Blog] The Design, Photo and Apple Geek. Available at: https://dpageek.wordpress.com/2011/09/07/ethical-issues-in-the-graphic-design-business/ [Accessed 18 Dec. 2018].

World Health Organisation (2017). WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic. [online] Available at: https://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/policy/country_profile/idn.pdf [Accessed 18 Dec. 2018].


Post A: The damage of design in Tobacco and Gambling advertising

Carol Von Canon.jpg
 Australia has the greatest prevalence of problem gambling. Photo: Carol Von Canon

Gambling is more prevalent in Australia than any other nation around the world, according to data gathered by the Queensland Statisticians office “in total Australians lost $23.7 billion on all forms of gambling in 2016-17 — pokies, lotteries, casinos, racing and sports betting. That’s $1,251 for every man and woman over the age of 18.”(Mark, 2018). In spite of our country only accounting for less than 1% of the world’s population we currently have a fifth of the world’s pokies. We also have to deal with the fact that the “industry is a major donor to lawmakers and the Coalition government, and previous attempts at reform have failed. States and territories reaped $5.8 billion in taxes from gambling in the year through June 2015” (Scott & Heath, 2016).

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Money spent on gambling last year, in US dollars. Source: Bloomberg

We have access to data showing that “the social cost of gambling to the community is estimated to be at least $4.7 billion a year”, there is a rise of people seeking counselling for problem gambling and we have a rise in suicides from financial issues associated with gambling (Scott & Heath, 2016). Yet there is no movement in the policies to protect people from the system which is designed to be addictive with detrimental effects to their finances as well as their mental health. We can see that in our gambling behavior “the biggest change is in sports betting, with a 15 per cent increase in the amount of money Australians lost from the previous year in that category.” (Mark, 2018). In Australia gambling advertising is loosely regulated and there is almost no restriction on the development of apps which facilitate the ease of gambling behavior, sports betting apps are being developed faster and faster and making the act of placing bets more seamless.

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Data on gambling in Australia, Source: Bloomberg

We can see that there are parallels to the tobacco problem being faced in Indonesia, the unregulated advertising and push of making the product more appealing. In spite of vast amounts of data available to the public and policy makers the government in Indonesia seems extremely hesitant to challenge and restrict big tobacco for fear of the economic repercussions. One thing that the research is revealing is that the economic benefits are in actuality limited and that the social cost will begin to outweigh the money reaped from tax paying companies (Ahsan et al, 2008). Designers need to accept that they have an impact which is tangible through the work that they choose to undertake. They can either design slicker packaging, smoother apps, big aspirational adds and sell people highly addictive vices or they can try to mitigate the damage being done by these industries which are having detrimental effects on real human lives.



Ahsan. A., Adioetomo. S., Barber. S., Setyonaluri. D. 2008. Tobacco Economics in Indonesia. Bloomberg Philanthopies.

Mark. D., 2018. World’s worst gamblers: Australia’s destructive love affair with sports betting continues to grow. ABC News. Viewed 18th December 2018. https://www.abc.net.au/news/2018-10-20/australia-grows-destructive-love-affair-with-sports-gambling/10396984.

Scott. J. & Heath. J. 2016. Gambling is killing one Australian a day, but it rakes in billions in tax. Sydney Morning Herald. Viewed 18th Dec 2018. https://www.smh.com.au/business/consumer-affairs/gambling-is-killing-one-australian-a-day-but-it-rakes-in-billions-in-tax-20160928-grpypl.html

Pilihan Kita

Indonesia is one of the biggest consumers of tobacco in the world with 70% of their population being smokers (WHO, 2018). Aggressive marketing tactics and misinformation contribute to a misinformed understanding of the health risks associated with smoking. This is in conjunction with an endearing view of tobacco in the hearts and minds of the Indonesian people. In a distinctly difficult problem space, we worked to create a campaign focused upon recontextualising and subverting the aspirational perception of tobacco and highlighting the benefits of a smoke-free lifestyle in both the long and short term.

From our research, we distilled a series of key insights that influenced our ideation process. We categorised our insights into 3 pillars of a STEEP analysis: socio-cultural, economic and political  – as we found these to be the most dominant influencers of tobacco culture within Indonesia. We deduced that the most effective way to implement any real change would be to have a bottom-up approach. Through our ethnographic observations, and empirical insights it was evident that community enforced codes of conduct were received with more compliance than government legislation.

By drawing upon multiple streams of information we hoped to quickly gain a comprehensive understanding of the statistics associated with tobacco usage and its complex intrinsicness within Indonesian culture. In tandem with the information ascertained, we conducted interviews with a number of stakeholders to better understand the local perception of Indonesia’s tobacco industry, as well as their understanding of smoking-related disease.


Following the collation of our research, we began the process of quickly interpreting these insights into various viable strategies in order to assess both a direction and intention for the rest of our design campaign. Following the research phase, we formulated a consensus on our target group being young Indonesians aged between 15 – 25.

Studies have found that a non-smoker identity was a major influence on intention to quit and was positively correlated with higher success rates of quitting (Meijer et al., 2015). In Indonesia, tobacco marketing has spent years building a powerful aspirational narrative around smoking, one that frames the protagonist (the smoker) as more successful, more attractive, more confident and more masculine. It follows that the antithesis of these qualities; unsuccessful, unattractive, meek, weak, etc., start to become associated with the passive act of refraining. For adolescent Indonesians that are highly affected by social and peer pressures, this highlights the importance of addressing and fostering social identities for non-smokers.

Our design solution is a campaign that outlines how to initiate these ideas to create a brand and hopefully a movement.

Pilihan Kita (our choice) is a campaign which draws on the aspirational marketing misused in Indonesia, creating a social identity for people looking to quit smoking. Stemming from second and first-hand accounts, we have created a multi-channel campaign that facilitates a safe and positive community for like-minded individuals.


This notion of personal aspiration was continued within the creation of small comic strips. These comic strips effectively depict contextually significant aspirational stories with the aim being to change the perception of smoking as a roadblock on the path to achieve personal goals. The aspirations we chose to depict focused on the social and economic consequences of habitual smoking (which largely remain unnoticed by the Indonesians, courtesy of big tobacco). By focusing on these consequences we hope to open a new conversation about the effects of smoking in the present rather than long-term health impacts due to the relevance of these issues for young Surabaya’s.

The Instagram page is designed to facilitate a community and accountability which is proven to increase the success rate of quitting smoking. It allows people to share their stories, their motivations and location enabling them to feel like they are part of a community that is making the choice to live healthier, richer and tobacco-free.

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People who are interested in our movement can contact us via the landing page and ask for stickers and signage free of charge. This is a way for them to actually help us by making their tangible mark on public space. This will aid in ensuring the sustainability of the movement. Once we have amplified and instilled the message, it’s important to make sure that it remains present in the everyday lives of Surabaya’s, even just in a small way. Walking through the streets of Surabaya you are bombarded with imagery from Big Tobacco. We can claim back some space ourselves in our own small way. Signage can assist neighbourhoods and businesses in their efforts to keep public spaces smoke free, but this collateral also fosters solidarity and recognition amongst strangers. It fosters the notion that each one of us is not alone, and we have strength in numbers, that together we have the power to influence real and permanent social change.

Tobacco companies are not selling a product; they are selling the dream of a better future which is something much more powerful and mobilising. Our campaign recognises this. The way that we have chosen to respond is through the construction of another narrative. The difference is that this one is real, it’s based on facts and science, and it can have a positive impact on Surabayan society today.

In summary, the campaign is drawing on the success of aspirational marketing narratives that are commonly misused in tobacco advertising. Our multi-platform campaign will work to foster a new social identity, a community and as a result, an effective support system. With the implementation of this campaign, Surabaya could see the growth of a community that sees through the lies of the tobacco advertising and strives to support each other, working together to lead better lives.


Meijer, E., Gebhardt, W., Dijkstra, A., Willemsen, M. & Van Laar, C., 2015, ‘Quitting smoking: The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban’, Psychology & Health, vol 30, no 12, pp.1387-1409.

World Health Organization 2018, Tobacco Control in Indonesia, viewed 8 December 2018, <http://www.who.int/tobacco/about/partners/bloomberg/idn/en/>.




The tobacco industry has become an ingrained foundation in Indonesian culture. With a population of over 260 million people and 336 billion cigarettes being produced in 2015 (1), an enormous percentage of the population smoke cigarettes. The World Health Organisation suggests that 65% of the male population smokes and there are over 214,000 tobacco related deaths each year (2). Problematically, it has become a huge factor in the Indonesian economy, with the industry funding sporting events, large scale advertising and owning a dominating presence within the communities. Additionally, the extremely affordable pricing and the widespread access makes devising a solution a complicated and intricate process.

We used an old Australian TV advertisement which demonstrated the symptoms of emphysema through an interactive breathing exercise as inspiration for out project. This advertisement was extremely successful as it allowed you to step into the shoes of a smoker who is experiencing the disease and physically empathise with the smoker. We found this sort of experience informative but also effective in communicating a difficult point through interaction.

Australian Emphysema Ad


Our intervention is an informative package intended to be handed out to small communities or groups to create discussion, inform and encourage change through community members strengthening one another. The package includes six cards, candles and straws; one of the cards feature the mission statement and QR code to the website, another is fact sheet on the causes, symptoms and prevention of emphysema and four breathing exercises that replicate the shortness of breath experienced with the late stages of emphysema. The candles and straws included in the package are necessary for
experiments one and three.

mcok up instructions

With further time consideration and funding, we believe we can improve upon this idea in several ways.  Our media outreach is currently limited to Instagram and a webpage. We intend to further spread our influence through other social media sites to reach a wider audience and hopefully, spread awareness of tobacco related diseases. Furthermore, a more extensive list of experiments could be devised with further research which could further explain symptoms of tobacco related diseases to help better resonate with youth. Additionally, we could aim to create the packages with more sustainable materials, as well as reusable household items such as bamboo and plastic bottles in future experiments to reduce costs in terms of shipping, material sourcing and also provide a second use for the products, rather than simply discarding them.

Being made aware of the minute advertisement there is for anti-smoking in Surabaya, our intervention aims to bring further awareness of the damaging health effects of smoking.  Through our initiative we hope to bring people to a closer understanding, through emphasising with the negative experiences caused by smoking. Our kits are just one step forward for our incentive. With support from community members and organisations we envision that Tahan Nafas will inspire and move people to make a change.

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PROJECT: Group Durian: Untangling the wicked problem of tobacco in Indonesia

Indonesia is an incredibly interesting space to be in with tobacco influencing many, many faucets of Indonesia’s complex economy, social nuances and cultural mentalities. There is no single solution to tackle such a large and complex issue however there are many aspects of life, here in Indonesia, that one might argue could be improved without the presence of tobacco.

Key insights are rarely found in books – but instead hidden in the conversations with locals, the backends of streets and deep within the art and spirit of the city. The insights we found most valuable are as follows:

  1. Masculinity and Tradition: Smoking in Indonesia is almost exclusively for males, as they make up 62% of the smoking population whilst only 1-3% of women are smokers (Rosemary, 2018). Our interviews with students at ITS highlighted the way in which tobacco is engrained in Javanese tradition, which allows for its normalisation and stigmas surrounding those who choose not to smoke. The young individuals found that males who did not smoke were seen as less masculine or incapable of socialising, with teenage boys stating that “If I don’t smoke, I’m not a real man.” (Aditama, 2002)


  1. The importance and strength of communities: The Kampung,  Warna Warni, is a slum located on the riverbank. Working with a local university and a paint company they repainted the village with colour (Indo Indians 2017). The way in which colour is used has transformed the way people behave and interact in the space, changing social attitudes towards the slum area and empower the spirit of creativity in Indonesia and revealing the nations deeper values of diversity and unity (Putri 2018).


  1. The lack of community for non-smokers: Smoking is socially accepted by most Indonesians and with many public spaces facilitating social interaction around smoking culture. In contrast, non-smokers seem to not get the same privilege as smokers, as there are rarely smoke-free areas for non smokers in public spaces.


From this, our campaign stemmed. In a singular sentence, we want to change the role tobacco plays within Indonesia’s narrative and normalise non-smoking. We aim to achieve this by giving smokers tools to quit but even deeper than this we want to create a place for non-smokers in Indonesia. This means more non-smoking spaces, it means giving non-smokers the respect and acknowledgement that they deserve when it comes to smoking around them and it means creating a community for those who choose not to use tobacco. 

Our campaign is broken down into four main aspects:





First of we start with #30DayChallenge movement. Projected to start on the 31st of May 2019 inline with World Tobacco Day. In essence, this is designed to be something that piggy backs off the hype from a large anti-tobacco event such as World Tobacco Day and provides a reason or time for people to begin quitting. The 30 Day challenge can also be followed on our social media movement, Suara Tanpa Rokok, which will give daily inspiration and encouragement for all those trying to quit for the month. 


This is followed up by the wristbands movement which is the tangible symbol of this campaign. The wristbands play a couple of important roles in all of this especially when it comes to creating communities. We see three main advantages:

  • People that are trying to quit that might be feeling isolated have the ability to walk down the street and still feel part of a community by seeing others walking around also wearing the bands. 
  • It also informs smokers how to act and be respectful around those trying to quit or those that don’t want to be associated with smoke. By seeing people wearing the band we would hope people begin to learn not to offer cigarettes, or not begin smoking around these people. 
  • Finally amongst the youth, through our interview process with students we found merchandise to often attract a lot of curiosity. By sparking curiosity and sharing the wristbands through social media we also believe this will further perpetuate our campaign. 


Following on this notion of perpetuating our movement through social media we have created a hand symbol to allow people to show the are part of a bigger movement through their varying social media platforms  (Tsotra et al., 2004). The hands represent lungs and also the connection between individuals. Its a visible gesture which will increase engagement, awareness online and shows solidarity in the community we are creating.


The social media movement will likely be the main platform promoting this campaign. Social media promotes communities and people, shares stories, links people up, gives people a voice, allows people to feel part of something bigger and also acts as a collection of tools, resources and information to encourage, inspire and educate. 

48371920_599468713818228_6272527615270060032_n.jpgTo start creating community notions from the get go, this campaign is actually targeted at groups of people. The idea being that groups such as educational institutions, workplaces or entire geographical communities could sign up for a ‘package’, which would contain all the necessary merchandise, advertising and messages. Local businesses and vendors would also be given an opportunity to sign up from a different angle and contribute products that meet a criteria as well creating small business opportunities. All products are collated through vital strategies and then distributed to the communities and groups. Which then markets itself through social media and word of mouth.


A typical flow of this campaign might run as follows;


We believe that having a campaign stemming from strong primary research and reaffirmed through secondary sources that really targets communities has the chance to create real change in Indonesia’s narrative and creating accepted places for the non-smoking community. 



Aditama, T. Y. 2002, “Smoking Problem in Indonesia”, Medical Journal of Indonesia, vol.11, no. 1, pp. 56-65.

Indo Indians 2017, Kampung Warna Warni Jodipan, a Colorful Village in Malang, viewed on 13 December, <https://www.indoindians.com/kampung-warna-warni-jodipan-a-colorful-village-in-malang/>.

Putri, E. 2018, Jodipan: Indonesia’s Amazing Rainbow Village, Culture Trip, viewed on 13 December, <https://theculturetrip.com/asia/indonesia/articles/jodipan-indonesias-amazing-rainbow-village/>.

Rosemary, R. 2018, Forbidden Smoke, Inside Indonesia, viewed on 13 December, <https://www.insideindonesia.org/forbidden-smoke>.

Tsotra, D., Janson, M. and Cecez-Kecmanovic, D. (2004). Marketing on the Internet: A Semiotic Analysis. In: Americas Conference on Information Systems. [online] New York: Association for Information Systems, pp.4211-4220. Available at: https://aisel.aisnet.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2102&context=amcis2004 [Accessed 11 Dec. 2018].

Post C: An interview with a modern student.


My interview was conducted in the process of researching the complex matrix of social beliefs about smoking among university students in Surabaya. I was very fortunate to have the opportunity to talk to Neesa, a university student from ITS who also happened to be from the small but expanding percentage of the population who are young female smokers. We had talked to a few of Neesa’s peers prior to this interview and they had offered perspectives of smoking in line with the narratives we had found readily available in academic research, those of smoking being a stigmatised behaviour among women with allusions to prostitution, antisocial behaviour and rebellion against the Indonesian way of life. The perspective of most of the peers was that smoking was harmful, wrong and they could not understand why people would begin to smoke in spite of all these facts.

Neesa offered a different perspective, we were given an insight into the movement towards modern Indonesia with her opinion of the freedom that young women are embracing to engage in behaviours which have previously been stigmatised. Neesa also gave us a fascinating insight into the place of the behaviour among her peers, she stated that as a freshman at university her senior students offered her cigarettes during the first ‘hazing’ week stating that she and her peers would need them to cope with the stress of university life. The ritual of smoking has taken a place in her life which appears to mirror this suggestion from her elder students as her current smoking practice tends to be in the afternoon post university where she will meet up with her friends to smoke and unwind.

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One of the areas we talked about at length was about the understanding of health effects of smoking and how she believes her smoking affects how others view her. She said that she is aware of the health effects but is not able to quit because she would have nothing to take smoking’s place as a means of relaxing. An interesting statistic recorded in the WHO report on Indonesia showed that only “9.5% of daily smokers are successful in quitting” which is astonishingly low (2018). It was interesting to hear this as it showed a clear understanding of the risks she was taking in continuing to smoke and yet she was adamant that smoking was crucial to her success at university. We can see this reflected in the data, it has been published that “Up to one-half of the 57 million smokers in Indonesia today will die of tobacco-related illnesses. Some 78 percent of Indonesians started smoking before the age of 19 years.” (Barber Et. Al. 2008). This data is free to download and readily available as well as having been released in government education campaigns and yet even highly intelligent and educated individuals such as Neesa maintain their smoking habit for various social reasons.



Barber. S., Adioetomo. S., Ahsan. A., Setyonnaluri. 2008. Tobacco Economics in Indonesia. Bloomberg Philanthropies. 978-2-914365-40-6.

WHO. 2018. Factsheet 2018 – Indonesia. WHO Office for South-East Asia. Viewed 13 Dec 2018. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/272673/wntd_2018_indonesia_fs.pdf;jsessionid=98444EFF9BF4C980BF238B9BFFE3EF9D?sequence=1

Post D: Tobacco’s Fountain of Youth.

Surabaya is a growing city, a city of trade, varying culture & strong economy. Beneath the hustle & bustle of this booming city lies the tobacco issue, an issue that is so far embedded into Indonesian day to day culture that the stigma of ‘if you don’t smoke, it’s like you’re not Indonesian’ (Hodal, K. 2012) even exists. Tobacco companies control Indonesia with a tight grip, with its economic power being so strong a collapse in tobacco means a collapse for Indonesia. These companies are multi-billion dollar companies with no expenditure on advertising, promotion etc. being too much. They know their product is hooked & hooked so deep within the Indonesian people, there is little light for the future of public health in this beautiful country without strong intervention & prevention being funded by the government by aligning with the WHO framework. 

Throughout the past few days of exploring the city of Surabaya from a foreigners perspective, the problem does not just exist within the adult population as we experience in Australia. With over ’70% of men aged 20 & over’ (Hodal, K. 2012) smoking & the ‘average starting age falling from 19 a decade ago to just seven now’ (Hodal, K. 2012) the problem is becoming more & more of normalised & the bad habits of the adult population are influencing & rubbing off on the youth in rapid rates. 

Figure 1 and 2: Children playing in the Arab Quarter. (Burdfield, J. 2018)

These raised smoking rates in youth, spread all across Indonesia with rates of youth ‘aged 13 to 15 years showing that 37% has smoked cigarettes & 13.5% identifying as current smokers’. What even more alarmingly is that ’95.1% of Indonesian adolescents reported to never smoke expressed their intention to start smoking in the next 12 months’ (Tahlil, T., Woodman, R., Coveney, J. and Ward, P. 2013). 

With statistics like this, the need for the Indonesian government to intervene is critical. If the government were to begin to take more steps to regulate the sale of cigarettes, the opportunity for youth to illegally purchase cigarettes underage could dissipate. The sale of cigarettes is not only available fro supermarkets & convenience stores, but also local family businesses, warung & also street vendors. With a warung on every corner & street venders roaming up every small alley the sale is too easy & unfortunately the opportunity is there. With the sale of cigarettes being regulated, the age limit being enforced & more opportunity for education on the harmful effects, the youth of Indonesia could head towards a healthier & profitable future with ‘second-largest household expenditure after food’ (Hodal, K. 2012) being put towards a better alternative. 


Figure 3: My concept map exploring some connections I drew between tobacco and youth whilst on our Surabaya walking tour. (Burdfield, J. 2018)

Hodal, K. 2013, Indonesia’s smoking epidemic – an old problem getting younger, The Guardian, 22 March, <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/mar/22/indonesias-smoking-epidemic>.

Tahlil, T., Woodman, R., Coveney, J. and Ward, P. 2013, The impact of education programs on smoking prevention: a randomized controlled trial among 11 to 14 year olds in Aceh, Indonesia, BMC Public Health, viewed 7th December 2018, https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-13-367. 

Nawi, Ng., Weinehall, L. and Ohman, A. 2007, ’If i don’t smoke, I’m not a real man – Indonesian boy’s views about smoking’, Health Education Research, Volume 22, Issue 1, viewed 7th December 2018,  <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16987943>.