Post B: Effective measures to fight against tobacco consumption

1.-Men-smoke-cigarettes-at-railway-station-in-Jakarta-May-e1347421162666
(Photo: Reuters 2012)

The smoking epidemic in Indonesia is one of the world’s most serious cases, with 70% of men aged over 20 being smokers and the average starting age of smoking being a mere 7 years (Hodal 2012). The leading cause of this problem is the lack of restrictive laws regarding access to cigarettes in the country, as anyone of any age is legally able to purchase and smoke tobacco. A country that completely juxtaposes this in regards to their strict anti-tobacco laws is Uruguay, who have seen a clear decrease in the number of smokers between 2005 and 2011 with the main reason being their tobacco control campaign which included the ban of cigarettes in indoor public spaces, the ban of tobacco advertisements and increasing the tax on the product (Azevedo e Silva 2012).

A design measure that accompanied these legal actions is an anti-tobacco installation set up by Uruguay’s Resources National Fund in the city of Montevideo. The installation consists of large scale sculptures of cigarettes labelled with the toxic ingredients that are used to make them and are located in a busy area where people are bound to walk past and notice them. The size of the cigarettes being close to the height of a human provides an intimidating quality and combined with the excessive number of them scattered in a highly concentrated area, makes them impossible to miss and provokes viewers, particularly those who are smokers, into considering the message behind them.

1337256000000.cached_1(Photo: Campodonico 2012)

This installation focuses on the psychological aspect of tobacco addiction and serves its purpose to make smokers aware of harmful toxins they intake which are concealed within cigarettes. It tackles the main issue of smokers become desensitised to the consequences of smoking the more they do it as the ‘brain processes enhance the reward value of substances over to the point that automatic addictive behaviours occur without thinking’ (Gifford 2007). The large scale sculptural installation being situated in a population dense area effectively is able to explicitly deliver its message to people who pass by and make them accustomed to a negative perception towards tobacco.

The legal measures taken by the Uruguayan government to campaign against cigarette use has undeniably led to results as studies show that the level of restrictions placed on tobacco within an area will result in a decrease in cigarette consumption of similar magnitude (Brown 1995). However, for society to function harmoniously after government action, it requires their understanding and consent for the change and this installation is an example of a measure taken to influence people’s mindsets regarding tobacco usage by exposing its harmful nature.

References

Hodal, K. 2012, Indonesia’s smoking epidemic – and old problem getting younger, The Guardian, viewed 13 December 2017, <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/mar/22/indonesias-smoking-epidemic>.

Margolis, M. 2012, Uruguay Battles Big Tobacco over Cigarette Restrictions, News Week, viewed 13 December 2017, <http://www.newsweek.com/uruguay-battles-big-tobacco-over-cigarette-restrictions-68943>.

N/A. Uruguay’s tobacco control strategy delivers results, Framework Convention Alliance, viewed 14 December 2017, <http://www.fctc.org/fca-news/global-tobacco-control-success-stories/799-uruguays-tobacco-control-strategy-delivers-results>.

Gifford, E & Humphreys, K. 2007, ‘The psychological science of addiction’, Stanford University Medical Centre, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 352-361.

Azevedo e Silva, G & Goncalvez Valente, J. 2012, ‘Tobacco control: learning from Uruguay’, University of Rio de Janeiro State, vol. 380, pp. 1538-1540.

Brown, B. 1995, ‘Cigarette Taxes and Smoking Restrictions: Impacts and Policy Implications’, Oxford University Press, vol. 77, no. 4, pp. 946-951.

Reuters. 2012, Indonesian Men are World’s Top Smokers, Thai Visa, viewed 13 December 2017, <https://www.thaivisa.com/forum/topic/583761-myanmar-indonesian-men-are-world%C3%A2%E2%82%AC%E2%84%A2s-top-smokers/>.

Campodonico, M. 2012, Two people walk through an anti-tobacco installation set up by Uruguay’s Resources National Fund, depicting cigarettes’ harmful components, in Montevideo, Uruguay, News Week, viewed 13 December 2017, <http://www.newsweek.com/uruguay-battles-big-tobacco-over-cigarette-restrictions-68943>.

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Post D: The rise in popularity of culinary tourism and its impact on Indonesia

5926774-3x2-940x627(Photo: Gacad 2014)

Culinary tourism has been on the rise over recent years due to several factors including increasing public interest in food and the high density of food photography on social media platforms. The Ontario Culinary Tourism Alliance published a report where they state, “culinary tourists share millions of food and beverage themed photos daily across social platforms” and that “this increases travel consumers awareness of different cuisines and cultures and it fuels their desire to experience them.” (Parmar 2015). The consumption of authentic local food when travelling is a form of first-hand cultural experience (Hasselbeck 2017) and has grown to become one of the core reasons as to why people visit certain countries. For countries with economies that rely heavily on the tourism industry this may lead to issues regarding the exploitation of their cuisine and loss of tradition. Indonesia is a country well-known for their diverse array of regional cuisine and is one of the governments taking action to accommodate the large influx of tourists visiting the country.

Gudeg Jogja from Yogyakarta                Soto Betawi from Jakarta
(Photo: Traveller Tourism 2016)             (Photo: Weins 2015)

img110Map of Indonesia indicating popular regional foods

The tourism ministry of Indonesia has announced plans to turn Bali, an already popular tourist hotspot, into a food destination, where they will input more focus into their restaurants, holding food-tasting events and set up markets for travellers to taste food from all around the country. They have stated that their goal is to boost the number of tourists visiting Indonesia from 12 million in 2016 to 20 million by 2019 (Butler 2016). While it provides the convenience of tasting different regional dishes in one area, the process lacks the authenticity of consuming the food in its respective environment and immersing yourself in the culture.

There are other negative effects of mass tourism on Indonesian culture and traditional cuisine with one being the obstruction of visitors from an honest understanding as tourism “produces a form of mass seduction that alienates and disempowers consumers” (Gotham 2010). While tourists claim they would like to experience the authentic cuisine of different cultures, a study shows that they still look for a familiarity in the taste and ingredients (Wijaya et al. 2016). This is reinforced by the statement that a willingness to try new foods and explore different cultures, referred to as neophobia, is hindered by the natural scepticism in tasting something foreign, referred to as neophilia (Sengel et al. 2015). This can lead to a modification in traditional recipes to cater for foreigners to leave a positive impression of the country on them and promote visitation, inevitably resulting in a loss of culture.

Overall, whilst the tourism sector contributes greatly to the Indonesian economy with one of the country’s main appeals being their unique and diverse cuisine, it is important to note that the commoditisation of its local products brings consequences destructive to its culture.

References

Hasselbeck, A. 2017, The Rise of Food Tourism: How food tourism can boost the hospitality & tourism industry, Millionmetrics, viewed 7 December 2017, <https://www.millionmetrics.com/food-tourism/>

Butler, A. 2016, Indonesia hopes to promote Bali as a gastronomic tourism destination, Lonely Planet, viewed 7 December 2017, <https://www.lonelyplanet.com/news/2016/09/27/indonesia-bali-gastronomic-tourism/>

Parmar, P. 2015, How Culinary Tourism Is Becoming a Growing Trend in Travel, Huffington Post, viewed 7 December 2017, <http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/parmjit-parmar/the-rise-of-culinary-tourism_b_7596704.html>

Wijaya, S., Morrison, A., Nguyen, T., King, B. 2016, ‘Exploration of Culinary Tourism in Indonesia: What Do the International Visitors Expect?’, Asia Tourism Forum, pp. 375-379.

Sengel, T., Karagoz, A., Cetin, G., Dincer, F., Ertugral, S., Balik, M. 2015, ‘Tourists’ Approach to Local Food’, World Conference on Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, pp. 429-437.

Gotham, K. 2010, Handbook of Cultural Sociology, Routledge, New York.

Derek, F. 2014, The Ultimate Indonesian Food Guide: Regional Dishes, weblog, The Holidaze, viewed 7 December 2017, <http://blog.theholidaze.com/2014/08/ultimate-indonesia-food-guide-regional/>

N/A. 2012, Kalimantan Favourite Dishes, weblog, Blogspot, viewed 7 December 2017, <http://indonesianfoodss.blogspot.com.au/2012/08/kalimantan-favorite-dishes-kalimantan.html>

N/A. 2012, Delicious taste of Indonesian foods: Sulawesi, weblog, Blogspot, viewed 7 December 2017, <http://indonesianfoodss.blogspot.com.au/2012/08/delicious-taste-of-indonesian-foods.html>

Gacad, R. 2014, Indonesian street food, ABC, viewed 7 December 2017, <http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-11-28/indonesia-street-food/5926786>

Traveller Tourism. 2016, Gudeg Tugu, Indonesia Tourism, viewed 7 December 2017, <http://indonesia-tourism.com/blog/gudeg-tugu/>

Weins, M. 2015, Soto Betawi: An Indonesian Dish You Have to Eat in Jakarta, Migrationology, viewed 7 December 2017, <https://migrationology.com/soto-betawi-haji-husein/>